Spec Ops: The line between player and spectator in ludic entertainment.

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This paper will discuss the phenomenon of mediated game spectatorship, from the early games to today’s e-sport championships and online communities (youtube,, etc), and develop a descriptive model of the different modes of ludic spectatorship, that is, the possibility space of different spectator positions and modes afforded by games and gameplay.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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ID: 84344284