Denotational semantics for guarded dependent type theory
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therefore be checked modularly, unlike the syntactic checks implemented in modern proof assistants. The model is based on a category of covariant presheaves over a category of time objects, and quantification over clocks is modelled using a presheaf of clocks. To model the clock irrelevance axiom, crucial for programming with coinductive types, types must be interpreted as presheaves internally right orthogonal to the object of clocks. In the case of dependent types, this translates to a lifting condition similar to the one
found in homotopy theoreticmodels of type theory, but here with an additional requirement of uniqueness of lifts. Since the universes defined by the standard Hofmann–Streicher construction in this model do not satisfy this property, the universes in GDTT must be indexed by contexts of clock variables. We show how
to model these universes in such a way that inclusions of clock contexts give rise to inclusions of universes commuting with type operations on the nose.