This paper provides a survey of the different means of expression employed by robots, to convey affective state to human recipients. The paper introduces a model of affective means (MOAM) to effectively describe and compare the emphasis on specific means, and applies it to the surveyed robots. The model-based survey shows that a majority (92\%) of the surveyed robots contain a category with room for additional affective means, while a quarter (25.6\%) of the robots use a single or two affective means of expression to convey affective states. The result of the survey indicates there is an under researched opportunity in exploring synergies between means of affective expression to amplify the overall affective impact of a robot.
Title of host publication
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2019
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