Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks of AI in Government: A Study of AI Policy Documents in Sweden

Daniel Toll, Ida Lindgren, Ulf Melin, Christian Østergaard Madsen

Research output: Journal Article or Conference Article in JournalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


There is currently an ongoing, global race to develop, implement, and make use of AI in both the private and public sectors. How AI will affect responsibilities and public values to be upheld by government remains to be seen. This paper analyzes how AI is portrayed in Swedish policy documents and what values are attributed to the use of AI, based on an established e-government value framework. Statements are identified in policy documents and are coded into one of four value ideals, as well as being either a benefit, a consideration, or a risk. We conclude that there is discrepancy in the policy level discourse concerning AI between the different value ideals and that the discourse surrounding AI is overly optimistic. A more nuanced view of AI in government is needed to create realistic expectations.
Original languageEnglish
JournaleJournal of eDemocracy & Open government: JeDEM
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)40-60
Number of pages21
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jul 2020


  • Artificial intelligence
  • e-government values
  • public sector
  • benefits
  • risks


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  • Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Policies: Values, benefits, considerations and risks

    Toll, D., Lindgren, I., Melin, U. & Østergaard Madsen, C., 2019, EGOV: International Conference on Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings. Lindgren, I. (ed.). Berlin: Springer, p. 301-310 10 p.

    Research output: Conference Article in Proceeding or Book/Report chapterArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

    Open Access

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