Secure Internet Exams Despite Coercion

Research output: Conference Article in Proceeding or Book/Report chapterArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


We study coercion-resistance for online exams. We propose
two properties, Anonymous Submission and Single-Blindness which, if
hold, preserve the anonymity of the links between tests, test takers, and
examiners even when the parties coerce one another into revealing secrets. The properties are relevant: not even Remark!, a secure exam
protocol that satisfied anonymous marking and anonymous examiners
results to be coercion resistant. Then, we propose a coercion-resistance
protocol which satisfies, in addition to known anonymity properties, the
two novel properties we have introduced. We prove our claims formally
in ProVerif. The paper has also another contribution: it describes an
attack (and a fix) to an exponentiation mixnet that Remark! uses to
ensure unlinkability. We use the secure version of the mixnet in our new
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication17th DPM International Workshop on Data Privacy Management
Publication date2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Coercion-resistance
  • Formal Verification
  • Exponentiation Mixnet
  • Security Flaws
  • Security Protocol Design
  • Proverif


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