ROYALE: A Framework for Universally Composable Card Games with Financial Rewards and Penalties Enforcement

Carsten Baum, Bernardo David, Rafael Dowsley

Research output: Conference Article in Proceeding or Book/Report chapterArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


While many tailor made card game protocols are known, the vast majority of those lack three important features: mechanisms for distributing nancial rewards and punishing cheaters, composability guarantees and exibility, focusing on the specic game of poker. Even though folklore holds that poker protocols can be used to play any card game, this conjecture remains unproven and, in fact, does not hold for a number of protocols (including recent results). We both tackle the problem of constructing protocols for general card games and initiate a treatment of such protocols in the Universal Composability (UC) framework, introducing an ideal functionality that captures card games that use a set of core card operations. Based on this formalism, we introduce Royale, the rst UC-secure general card games which supports - nancial rewards/penalties enforcement. We remark that Royale also yields the rst UC-secure poker protocol. Interestingly, Royale performs better than most previous works (that do not have composability guarantees), which we highlight through a detailed concrete complexity analysis and benchmarks from a prototype implementation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFinancial Cryptography and Data Security. FC 2019.
EditorsIan Goldberg, Tyler Moore
Number of pages18
Publication date30 Sept 2019
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-32100-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-32101-7
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2019
EventFinancial Cryptography and Data Security (FC 2019) -
Duration: 18 Feb 201922 Feb 2019


ConferenceFinancial Cryptography and Data Security (FC 2019)
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science


  • Blockchain
  • Multiparty Computation
  • Fairness
  • Card Games
  • Composability


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