Post-Election Audits in the Philippines

Research output: Contribution to conference - NOT published in proceeding or journalConference abstract for conferenceResearchpeer-review


How do you observe the unobservable? The election technology in use in the Philippines are optical ballot scanners called Vote Counting Machines (VCMs) that scan, count, and transmit election re- sults at the close of polls back to the national tallying center. Post- election audits called Random Manual Audits (RMAs) are required by law to take place prior to the result becoming final. In this paper, we explore the idea of replacing RMAs by Risk-Limiting Audits (RLAs) that are efficient, have a high chance of correcting an incorrect election outcome by the means of a recount, and can therefore strengthen public confidence in the election.
Original languageEnglish
Publication date3 Oct 2022
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2022


  • Risk limiting audits
  • E-voting
  • Philippines


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