In the Eye of the Beholder-  A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze

Research output: Journal Article or Conference Article in JournalReviewpeer-review


Despite active research and significant progress in the last 30 years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have numerous applications and are essential in face detection, biometric identification, and particular human-computer interaction tasks. This paper reviews current progress and state of the art in video-based eye detection and tracking in order to identify promising techniques as well as issues to be further addressed. We present a detailed review of recent eye models and techniques for eye detection and tracking. We also survey methods for gaze estimation and compare them based on their geometric properties and reported accuracies. This review shows that, despite their apparent simplicity, the development of a general eye detection technique involves addressing many challenges, requires further theoretical developments, and is consequently of interest to many other domains problems in computer vision and beyond.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)478 - 500
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Regression Analysis
  • occlusion
  • eye models
  • review paper
  • eye tracker
  • unread
  • Models- Biological
  • facial animation
  • eye detection technique
  • survey
  • Eye- or Gaze-Tracking
  • applications
  • eye tracking
  • eye
  • cogain
  • human--computer interaction.
  • Eye Movements
  • computer vision
  • eye movements
  • introductory and survey
  • estimation theory
  • Folder - cv survey papers
  • computing methodologies
  • Fixation- Ocular
  • face recognition
  • video-based eye detection
  • human-computer interaction
  • review
  • eye detection
  • gaze tracking
  • Folder - Dissertation Proposal_V2
  • model
  • face and gesture recognition
  • Humans
  • Gaze tracking
  • image processing and computer vision
  • human–computer interaction.
  • Folder - Review
  • gaze estimation
  • Gaze estimation
  • object detection and tracking
  • pupil tracking
  • face detection
  • Survey
  • pattern recognition
  • pupil detection
  • human computer interaction
  • eyes tracking
  • Eye Movement Measurements
  • 視線検出手法
  • biometrics (access control)
  • tracking
  • HCI
  • video signal processing
  • biometric identification
  • Head Movements
  • Eye tracking
  • scene analysis


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