From ”Explainable AI” to ”Graspable AI”

Maliheh Ghajargar, Jeffrey Bardzell, Alison Renner, Peter Gall Krogh, Kristina Höök, David Cuartielles, Laurens Boer, Mikael Wiberg

Research output: Conference Article in Proceeding or Book/Report chapterArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


Since the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML), researchers have asked how intelligent computing systems could interact with and relate to their users and their surroundings, leading to debates around issues of biased AI systems, ML black-box, user trust, user’s perception of control over the system, and system’s transparency, to name a few. All of these issues are related to how humans interact with AI or ML systems, through an interface which uses different interaction modalities. Prior studies address these issues from a variety of perspectives, spanning from understanding and framing the problems through ethics and Science and Technology Studies (STS) perspectives to finding effective technical solutions to the problems. But what is shared among almost all those efforts is an assumption that if systems can explain the how and why of their predictions, people will have a better perception of control and therefore will trust such systems more, and even can correct their shortcomings. This research field has been called Explainable AI (XAI). In this studio, we take stock on prior efforts in this area; however, we focus on using Tangible and Embodied Interaction (TEI) as an interaction modality for understanding ML. We note that the affordances of physical forms and their behaviors potentially can not only contribute to the explainability of ML systems, but also can contribute to an open environment for criticism. This studio seeks to both critique explainable ML terminology and to map the opportunities that TEI can offer to the HCI for designing more sustainable, graspable and just intelligent systems.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction
Number of pages4
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Publication date15 Feb 2021
Article number69
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2021
EventFifteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction -
Duration: 15 Feb 202119 Feb 2021


ConferenceFifteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction
Internet address


  • Explainable AI
  • XAI
  • Machine Learning
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Tangible Embodied Interaction
  • Interaction Design


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