Evolving Personalized Content for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution

Noor Shaker, Georgios N. Yannakakis, Julian Togelius, Miguel Nicolau, Michael O’Neill

Research output: Conference Article in Proceeding or Book/Report chapterArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


Adapting game content to a particular player’s needs and ex- pertise constitutes an important aspect in game design. Most research in this direction has focused on adapting game difficulty to keep the player engaged in the game. Dynamic difficulty adjustment, however, focuses on one aspect of the gameplay experience by adjusting the content to increase or decrease perceived challenge. In this paper, we introduce a method for automatic level generation for the platform game Super Mario Bros using grammatical evolution. The grammatical evolution-based level generator is used to generate player-adapted content by employing an adaptation mechanism as a fitness function in grammatical evolution to optimize the player experience of three emotional states: engagement, frustration and challenge. The fitness functions used are models of player experience constructed in our previous work from crowd-sourced gameplay data collected from over 1500 game sessions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputational Intelligence and Games (CIG), 2012 IEEE Conference on
PublisherIEEE Communications Society
Publication date2012
Pages304 - 311
ISBN (Print)978-1-4673-1193-9
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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