Evolving Levels for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution

Noor Shaker, Miguel Nicolau, Georgios N. Yannakakis, Julian Togelius, Michael O’Neill

Research output: Journal Article or Conference Article in JournalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper presents the use of design grammars to evolve playable 2D platform levels through grammatical evolution (GE). Representing levels using design grammars allows simple encoding of important level design constraints, and allows remarkably compact descriptions of large spaces of levels. The expressive range of the GE-based level generator is analyzed and quantitatively compared to other feature-based and the original level generators by means of aesthetic and similarity based measures. The analysis reveals strengths and shortcomings of each generator and provides a general frame- work for comparing content generated by different generators. The approach presented can be used as an assistive tool by game designers to compare and analyze generators’ capabilities within the same game genre.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and Games
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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