A Security Analysis of the Danish Deposit Return System

Ivan Garbacz, Rosario Giustolisi, Kasper Møller Nielsen, Carsten Schürmann

Research output: Conference Article in Proceeding or Book/Report chapterArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The process that allows one to get rewarded for returning a container through reverse vending machines (RVM) involves people and technology. In fact, it typically sees a set of human parties (e.g. customers, cashiers) and technical parties (e.g, RVMs, databases, scanners) to collaborate in order to enable eective recycling. In this paper, we advance a formal treatment of the Danish Deposit Return System (DRS).

We investigate the security of the ceremony that people are expected to
perform in the context of DRS using eld observation and automated reasoning tools. We give a particular focus to the security threats due to people interacting with the technology behind DRS. The ndings of our investigation enable novel considerations of the ceremony weaknesses and make it possible to delineate potential mitigations.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 9th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust
Publication date1 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science


  • Reverse Vending Machines (RVM)
  • Deposit Return System (DRS)
  • Security Threats
  • Human-Technology Interaction
  • Automated Reasoning Tools


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