Using Priors to Improve Head-Mounted Eye Trackers in Sports

Fabricio Batista Narcizo

Publikation: Bog / Antologi / Rapport / Ph.D.-afhandlingPh.d.-afhandling


This Ph.D. thesis is about using available information known from the problem
at hand (aka priors), with the aim to enhance the performance of head-mounted
eye trackers. Prior information is used for eye tracking scenarios in different
sports disciplines to improve the accuracy and robustness of gaze estimation in
critical situations. This thesis also explores off-the-shelf hardware to build flexible
and adaptable eye trackers that exploit the constraints revealed for specific
sports settings. Several eye tracking methods are presented, in which the use of
priors plays the leading role. The compensation models proposed in this thesis
ranging from solving geometrical constraints of head-mounted eye trackers to
eye feature detection in challenging environment lighting conditions. The experiments
focused on different sports disciplines to collect and analyze eye tracking
data involving elite athletes during the daily training sessions of shooting and
kayak as well as some laboratory experiments. The results of the experiments
showed that the use of priors is very promising to the field of eye tracking, such
as (i) using the distance between the athlete and the observed target as priors, to
reduce the influence of parallax error in 80.59%; (ii) using the 3D angles from
the athlete’s head as priors, to reduce the influence of head rotation in 86.41%;
(iii) using the geometric relation of human ocular system as priors, to make eye
tracking more robust to eye feature noise, among others. Using priors in different
steps of an eye tracking system has a general and substantial impact on eye
trackers in general. While the focus of this thesis is in the use of eye tracking in
sports, it is evident that progress achieved within this project on gaze estimation
for sports activities has a direct impact on other areas that use eye tracking as
Keywords: eye tracking, sports analysis, prior information, head-mounted eye
ForlagIT-Universitetet i København
Antal sider152
ISBN (Trykt)978-87-7949-006-2
StatusUdgivet - 2017


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