In this paper, we show that the affine, non-rigid structure-from-motion problem can be solved by rank-one, thus degenerate, basis shapes. It is a natural reformulation of the classic low-rank method by Bregler et al., where it was assumed that the deformable 3D structure is generated by a linear combination of rigid basis shapes. The non-rigid shape will be decomposed into the mean shape and the degenerate shapes, constructed from the right singular vectors of the low-rank decomposition. The right singular vectors are affinely back-projected into the 3D space, and the affine back-projections will also be solved as part of the factorisation. By construction, a direct interpretation for the right singular vectors of the low-rank decomposition will also follow: they can be seen as principal components, hence, the first variant of our method is referred to as Rank-1-PCA. The second variant, referred to as Rank-1-ICA, additionally estimates the orthogonal transform which maps the deformation modes into as statistically independent modes as possible. It has the advantage of pinpointing statistically dependent subspaces related to, for instance, lip movements on human faces. Moreover, in contrast to prior works, no predefined dimensionality for the subspaces is imposed. The experiments on several datasets show that the method achieves better results than the state-of-the-art, it can be computed faster, and it provides an intuitive interpretation for the deformation modes.
|Status||Udgivet - 30 apr. 2019|