Visual instance search involves retrieving from a collection of images the ones that contain an instance of a visual query. Systems designed for visual instance search face the ma jor challenge of scalability : a collection of a few million images used for instance search typically creates a few billion features that must be indexed. Furthermore, as real image collections grow rapidly, systems must also provide dynamicity, i.e., be able to handle on-line insertions while concurrently serving retrieval operations. Durability, which is the ability to recover correctly from software and hardware crashes, is the natural complement of dynamicity. Durability, however, has rarely been integrated within scalable and dynamic high-dimensional indexing solutions. This article addresses the issue of dynamicity and durability for scalable indexing of very large and rapidly growing collections of local features for instance retrieval. By extending the NV- tree, a scalable disk-based high-dimensional index, we show how to implement the ACID properties of trans- actions which ensure both dynamicity and durability. We present a detailed performance evaluation of the transactional NV-tree: (i) We show that the insertion throughput is excellent despite the overhead for en- forcing the ACID properties; (ii) We also show that this transactional index is truly scalable using a standard image benchmark embedded in collections of up to 28.5 billion high-dimensional vectors; the largest single-server evaluations reported in the literature.
|Status||Udgivet - maj 2018|